7. Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Frontloading (Part 2) – 4th Grade

download this video .zip download description .pdf

Vocabulary and Background Knowledge Frontloading (Part 2) – 4th Grade

Grade Level: Fourth Grade

School: Jefferson Elementary School

Location: Wichita, Kansas

Materials: Treasures Reading (Macmillan/McGraw-Hill); Collins Cobuild Dictionary of American English

Videographers: Wichita Public Schools (USD 259) Media Production Services. Staff Members: Mark Mohesky, Jennifer Bellinger-Sipes, Micael D. Smith, Jennifer Hartman

Web Master: Dima Yaremenko

Elapsed Time: 24:40

Introduction: This fourth grade class is preparing to read an informational passage on Ben Franklin in their core reading class. In anticipation of passage reading, vocabulary was introduced and background knowledge provided to increase reading comprehension.

Focus: As you watch this video,

1) Determine the four steps in the Vocabulary Instruction Routine that are used to introduce convinced, independence, and dizzy.
2) Determine the procedures used to introduce the meanings of whirlwind, nowadays, and handy.
3) Identify other good instructional practices.

Feedback :

1) Determine the four steps in the Vocabulary Instruction Routine that are used to introduce convinced, independence, and dizzy.

The following instructional steps were used:

a) Introduce the pronunciation of the word.

  • The teacher said the new word and students repeated the word. To insure that students could pronounce the words accurately, the teacher and students tapped and said the syllables in the words.

b) Present a student-friendly explanation.

  • The teacher and the students read the explanations together.

c) Illustrate the word with examples.

  • Pictures and photos coupled with written sentences containing the vocabulary word were used to illustrate the new word. The teacher and students read the examples together, maximizing the amount of reading practice embedded in the lesson.
  • Familiar examples and passage-related examples were used.

d) Check students’ understanding.

  • Students were asked questions to verify their understanding. In a number of cases, the students had to discern between examples and non-examples.

2) Determine the procedures used to introduce the meanings of whirlwind, nowadays, and handy.

These words are less frequent and easier to obtain than the other vocabulary words. Thus, less time was given to each of these words. Also, each word’s meaning is supported by elements embedded in the word.

Whirlwind – Whirlwind was treated as a compound word, reading the word left to right but determining the meaning by relating the last word to the first word (A whirlwind is a wind that whirls.) To make the word more memorable, students acted out the word.

Nowadays – Nowadays was also introduced as a compound word in which the meaning was determined by related the last word to the first word (Nowadays refers to days that are now.).

Handy – When teaching handy, the teacher emphasized the base word hand.

3) Identify other good instructional practices.

Inclusive Active Participation

Structured active participation strategies were used throughout the lesson including:

  • Choral responses – The teacher asked a question, gave thinking time, and then signaled for an oral answer.
  • Thumbs up – The students indicated that they had enough thinking time by putting their thumb up.
  • Partners – The students had been assigned a partner and given the designations North and South. The teacher asked a question, provided thinking time, and then designated one partner to say answer to their partner.
  • Individual oral responses – After ALL students were given thinking time and a chance to share their answers with their partners, the teacher randomly called on a few students to report out to the group.
  • When students did not respond, the teacher simply had them redo the item. “I need everyone.”

The passage was read using the following procedures:

  • Choral reading – The teacher and the students read the examples and explanations together.
  • Cloze reading – The teacher read, stopping before some critical words. The students said the next word. Cloze reading is an excellent practice for increasing on-task behavior during passage reading.

Thinking Time

  • After asking higher order questions requiring manipulation of information in working memory, the teacher gave 5 to 6 seconds of thinking time and also modeled thinking..

Monitoring and Coaching

  • When students were discussing answers with their partners, the teacher moved around the room, listening to answers and coaching as needed.

Scaffolding

  • To increase the quality of student oral answers, the teacher provided sentence starters on the screen. The benefits of sentence starters included: a) increasing the quality of the answers, b) generating complete sentences, c) helping students initiate (start) their responses, and d) promoting the use of academic language.

Rapid Naming

  • Students were asked to rapidly name items that are “handy.” Rapid naming is also related to reading comprehension.

Sample chapter

Start reading now!

You will need Adobe Reader to open this file.

Check it out!Click to download a sample chapter

Contact us:

We would love to hear from you!

Contact Anita L. Archer

Contact Charles A. Hughes

© - Anita Archer | All rights reserved | Contact site admin